Civil Engineering Tips – Points to Remember For Civil Site Engineers

Civil Engineers do many activities at the construction sites and there is certain work which repetitive in the future. So, some points and tricks and tips which civil engineers should remember for faster calculation as well as quick solutions to construction site problems.  

Points to Remember For Civil Site Engineers

Few general points to remember for civil site engineers to make the construction work easier while maintaining the quality of construction are given below.

  • BIS abbreviation Bureau of Indian Standard.
  • ASTM abbreviation American Society for Testing Material.
  • C/C means Center to Center distance.
  • DL means Development length
  • The minimum thickness of the slab is 125mm.
  • Water absorption of bricks should not exceed 15%.
  • Dimension tolerance for cubes +/– 2 mm.
  • Lapping is not allowed for the bar having diameters more than 36mm.
  • Chair spacing maximum is 1.00m or 1 no per 1 m2.
  • For dowels bar minimum of 12mm diameter should be used.
  • Chairs a minimum of 12mm diameter bars to be used.
  • Longitudinal reinforcement not less than 0.8% and more than 6% of the gross cross-section.
  • The minimum bars for the square column is 4 no’s and 6 no’s for the circular column.
  • The main bar in the slab shall not be less than 8mm (HYDS) or 10mm (Plain bars) and the distribution bar not less than 8mm and not more than 1/8 of slab thickness.
  • The freefall of concrete is allowed a maximum to 1.5m.
  • Lap slices not be used for bar larger than 36mm diameter.
  • Water PH values less than 6 should not be used for construction purposes.
  • The compressive strength of brick is 3.5 N/mm2.
  • In steel reinforcement biding wire is required 8 kg per MT.
  • Electrical conduits should not run in the column.
  • In soil filling as per IS code for every 100 sq.m, 3 samples for core cutting tests should be taken.
  • The initial setting time of cement shall not be less than 30 minutes and the final setting time of cement are 600 minutes.
  • DPC means the Damp Proof Course.
  • The thickness of DPC should not be less than 2.5cm.
  • The height of the floor is usually 3m or 10ft.
  • The weight of the bar is calculated using formula D2/162 (where D is the diameter of the bar).
  • The no’s of bricks required for 1m3 of brick masonry is 550 bricks.
  • Standard size of brick is 19cm x 9cm x 4cm.
  • The slope or pitch of the stair should be between 25 degrees to 40 degrees.
  • The rise in stair is in between 150mm to 200mm.
  • The tread in the staircase is in between 250mm to 300mm.
  • Hook length should be a minimum of 9D. (where D is the diameter of the bar)
  • The volume of 50kg cement is 1.25ft3.
  • TMT bars: TMT means Thermo Mechanically Treated Bars
  • Cement more than 3 months old cannot be used for construction work.
  • The length of each bar from the factory is 12m.

Cube Samples Required for Different Quantity of Concrete

1-5 m31 Sample
6-15 m32 Samples
16-30 m33 Samples
31-50 m34 Samples
51 m3 and above4 Samples + 1 Sample addition of each 50 m3

De-Shuttering Time of Different RCC Member

RCC MemberDe-Shuttering Time
For Columns, vertical formworks16-24 hrs
Soffit form work to slab3 days (props to be refixed after removal)
Soffit to beam props7 days (props to refixed after removal)
Beam spanning upto 4.5m7 days
Beam spanning over 4.5m14 days
Arches spanning 4.5m14 days
Arches spanning over 4.5m21 days

Density of Materials

MaterialDensity
Bricks1600 Kg/m3-1920 Kg/m3
Cement1440 Kg/m3
Sand1100 Kg/m3-1600 Kg/m3
Steel7850 Kg/m3
Water1000 Kg/m3
R.C.C2310  Kg/m3-2700 Kg/m3
P.C.C2400 Kg/m3

Concrete Mix Ratio of Different Grades of Concrete

Concrete GradeMix Ratio
M51:5:10
M7.51:4:8
M101:3:6
M151:2:4
M201:1.5:3
M251:1:2
M30 and AboveMix Design Require

Concrete Cover or Clear Cover to Reinforcement Bar

Member of StructureConcrete Cover
Beam25mm
Column40mm
Stair case15mm
Raft foundation sides75mm
Footing75mm
Raft foundation bottom75mm
Water retaining structures25mm
Shear wall25mm
Flat slab20mm
Grade slab20mm
Raft foundation top50mm
Strap beam50mm

Test on Fresh Concrete

  • Slump Test – Workability Test
  • Compacting factor test
  • Vee – Bee test

Test on Hardened Concrete

  • Rebound hammer test
  • Ultrasonic pulse velocity test
  • Maturity test
  • Penetration resistance test
  • Split tension test
  • Rebound hammer test

Curing Methods of Concrete

The curing methods of curing are given below.

  • Spraying
  • Ponding
  • Steam curing
  • Curing chemicals
  • Wet covering

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